14 December, 2011

OpenWrt (Backfire 10.03) and TL-WR1043ND

I would like to describe another OpenWrt configuration. It's going to be just few examples how to configure latest available OpenWrt firmware Backfire 10.03.1.

I'm going to use TP-Link TL-WR1043ND wifi router with small 64MB USB stick [/dev/sda1] containing ext2 partition. I plan to have some stats on the USB stick and simple html pages as well.

After flashing the original firmware with openwrt-ar71xx-tl-wr1043nd-v1-squashfs-factory.bin I installed the kernel related packages and extroot:

(if you have OpenWRT already installed use: mtd -e firmware -r write /www2/openwrt-ar71xx-tl-wr1043nd-v1-squashfs-sysupgrade.bin firmware)

opkg update
opkg install block-hotplug block-extroot kmod-fs-ext4 kmod-usb-storage

uci set system.@system[0].hostname=openwrt
uci set system.@system[0].timezone=CET-1CEST,M3.5.0,M10.5.0/3
uci set system.@system[0].timezone=CET-1CEST,M3.5.0,M10.5.0/3
uci set system.@system[0].log_file=/etc/messages
uci set system.@system[0].log_size=1024
uci set system.@system[0].log_type=file

uci set fstab.@mount[0].device=/dev/sda1
uci set fstab.@mount[0].fstype=ext4
uci set fstab.@mount[0].options=rw,sync
uci set fstab.@mount[0].enabled=1
uci set fstab.@mount[0].enabled_fsck=0
uci set fstab.@mount[0].is_rootfs=1

uci set dropbear.@dropbear[0].Port=2222

uci add firewall rule
uci set firewall.@rule[-1].name=ssh
uci set firewall.@rule[-1].src=wan
uci set firewall.@rule[-1].target=ACCEPT
uci set firewall.@rule[-1].proto=tcp
uci set firewall.@rule[-1].dest_port=2222

uci add firewall rule
uci set firewall.@rule[-1].name=iodined
uci set firewall.@rule[-1].src=wan
uci set firewall.@rule[-1].target=ACCEPT
uci set firewall.@rule[-1].proto=udp
uci set firewall.@rule[-1].dest_port=53

uci add firewall rule
uci set firewall.@rule[-1].name=snmp
uci set firewall.@rule[-1].src=wan
uci set firewall.@rule[-1].target=ACCEPT
uci set firewall.@rule[-1].proto=udp
uci set firewall.@rule[-1].dest_port=161

uci add firewall rule
uci set firewall.@rule[-1].name=http_ser
uci set firewall.@rule[-1].src=lan
uci set firewall.@rule[-1].dst=wan
uci set firewall.@rule[-1].src_ip=
uci set firewall.@rule[-1].target=ACCEPT
uci set firewall.@rule[-1].proto=tcp
uci set firewall.@rule[-1].dest_port=80

uci set wireless.@wifi-iface[-1].ssid=ser
uci set wireless.@wifi-iface[-1].encryption=psk2
uci set wireless.@wifi-iface[-1].key=xxxxxxxx

uci set wireless.radio0.channel=3
uci set wireless.radio0.htmode=HT40

uci del wireless.@wifi-device[0].disabled

uci set network.lan.ipaddr=

uci set dhcp.@dnsmasq[0].domain=ser.no-ip.org
uci set dhcp.@dnsmasq[0].leasefile=/etc/dnsmasq-dhcp.leases
uci set dhcp.@dnsmasq[0].port=0
uci set dhcp.@dnsmasq[0].cachelocal=0
uci set dhcp.lan.dhcp_option=6,

uci set dhcp.lan.start=200
uci set dhcp.lan.limit=254

uci add dhcp host
uci set dhcp.@host[-1].name=ruz
uci set dhcp.@host[-1].ip=
uci set dhcp.@host[-1].mac=XX:XX:XX:XX:XX:XX

Configure the ssh to enable autologin:
scp $HOME/.ssh/id_rsa.pub root@
ssh root@
cp /tmp/authorized_keys /etc/dropbear/authorized_keys
chmod 600 /etc/dropbear/authorized_keys

Install few applications:
opkg update
opkg install --force-overwrite htop less openssh-sftp-server tcpdump wget-nossl

Configure ssmtp for the outgoing emails:
opkg install msmtp-nossl

sed -i 's/^\(host\).*/\1 smtp.XXXXXX.cz/' /etc/msmtprc
cat >> /etc/msmtprc << EOF
auto_from on
maildomain ser.no-ip.org

sed -i '/^exit 0/i echo -e "Subject: Reboot `uci get system.@system[0].hostname`\\n\\nOpenwrt rebooted: `date`\\n\\n`grep -B 50 \\"syslogd started\\" /etc/messages`" | sendmail petr.ruzicka@gmail.com' /etc/rc.local

Configure DDNS:
opkg install luci-app-ddns

uci set ddns.myddns.enabled=1
uci set ddns.myddns.service_name=no-ip.com
uci set ddns.myddns.domain=ser.no-ip.org
uci set ddns.myddns.username=ruz
uci set ddns.myddns.password=XXXXXXXXXXX

Install snmpd:
opkg install mini-snmpd

uci set mini_snmpd.@mini_snmpd[0].interfaces=lo,br-lan,eth0.2,eth0.1
uci set mini_snmpd.@mini_snmpd[0].community=OpenWrt
uci set mini_snmpd.@mini_snmpd[0].location='Ser'
uci set mini_snmpd.@mini_snmpd[0].contact='Ser'
uci set mini_snmpd.@mini_snmpd[0].disks='/tmp,/overlay'

/etc/init.d/mini_snmpd enable

Configure TFTPboot and dnsmasq script:
mkdir /tftpboot

wget -P /tftpboot http://static.netboot.me/gpxe/netbootme.kpxe
uci set dhcp.@dnsmasq[0].enable_tftp=1
uci set dhcp.@dnsmasq[0].tftp_root=/tftpboot
uci set dhcp.@dnsmasq[0].dhcp_boot=netbootme.kpxe

echo "dhcp-script=/etc/dnsmasq-script.sh" >> /etc/dnsmasq.conf

cat > /etc/dnsmasq-script.sh << \EOF 

/bin/echo `/bin/date +"%F %T"` $* >> /www2/dnsmasq.script.log

if [ "$1" == "add" ] && ! grep -iq $2 /etc/config/dhcp; then
  echo -e "Subject: New MAC on `uci get system.@system[0].hostname`.`uci get dhcp.@dnsmasq[0].domain`\\n\\n`/bin/date +"%F %T"` $*" | sendmail petr.ruzicka@gmail.com

chmod a+x /etc/dnsmasq-script.sh

Configuration of iodined server (dns-tunelling)
opkg install iodined

uci set iodined.@iodined[0].address=XX.XXX.XX.XX
uci set iodined.@iodined[0].password=XXXXXXXX
uci set iodined.@iodined[0].tunnelip=
uci set iodined.@iodined[0].tld=tunnel.XXXXX.cz

/etc/init.d/iodined enable

Configure httpd daemon for the "/www2":
opkg install px5g uhttpd-mod-tls

uci del uhttpd.main.listen_http
uci set uhttpd.px5g.days=3650
uci set uhttpd.px5g.country=CZ
uci set uhttpd.px5g.state="Czech Republic"
uci set uhttpd.px5g.location=Brno
rm /etc/uhttpd.crt /etc/uhttpd.key

uci set uhttpd.main.listen_https=""

mkdir -p /www2/vnstat
uci set uhttpd.my=uhttpd
uci set uhttpd.my.listen_http=""
uci set uhttpd.my.home=/www2

Set the checking time for watchcat for 1 hour:
opkg install watchcat

uci set system.@watchcat[0].period=1h

/etc/init.d/watchcat enable
uci commit

Repeat the previous steps and continue...
You need to repeat it, because your router now reads the configs from "empty" USB stick and not form internal memory. If you will remove the USB stick openwrt will read the configs from the memory.

Configure statistics (collectd):
opkg install luci-app-statistics

opkg install collectd-mod-cpu collectd-mod-disk collectd-mod-irq collectd-mod-ping collectd-mod-processes collectd-mod-tcpconns

uci set luci_statistics.collectd_rrdtool.DataDir=/etc/collectd
uci set luci_statistics.collectd_ping.enable=1
uci set luci_statistics.collectd_ping.Hosts=www.google.com
uci set luci_statistics.collectd_df.enable=1
uci set luci_statistics.collectd_df.Devices=/dev/sda1
uci set luci_statistics.collectd_df.MountPoints=/overlay
uci set luci_statistics.collectd_df.FSTypes=fuseblk
uci set luci_statistics.collectd_disk.enable=1
uci set luci_statistics.collectd_disk.Disks=sda
uci set luci_statistics.collectd_interface.Interfaces="eth0.2 wlan0 eth0.1"
uci set luci_statistics.collectd_irq.enable=1
uci set luci_statistics.collectd_tcpconns.LocalPorts="2222 80 443"
uci set luci_statistics.collectd_rrdtool.CacheTimeout=120
uci set luci_statistics.collectd_rrdtool.CacheFlush=900

/etc/init.d/luci_statistics enable
/etc/init.d/collectd enable

opkg install luci-app-vnstat vnstat vnstati

mkdir /etc/vnstat
sed -i 's@^\(DatabaseDir\).*@\1 "/overlay/etc/vnstat"@' /etc/vnstat.conf
vnstat -u -i eth0.2
vnstat -u -i wlan0
vnstat -u -i eth0.1
/etc/init.d/vnstat enable
/etc/init.d/vnstat start
echo "*/5 * * * * vnstat -u" >> /etc/crontabs/root

cat > /etc/graphs-vnstat.sh << \EOF
# vnstati image generation script.
# Source: http://code.google.com/p/x-wrt/source/browse/trunk/package/webif/files/www/cgi-bin/webif/graphs-vnstat.sh
WWW_D=/www2/vnstat # output images to here
LIB_D=`awk -F \" '/^DatabaseDir/ { print $2 }' /etc/vnstat.conf` # db location
BIN=/usr/bin/vnstati  # which vnstati
outputs="s h d t m"   # what images to generate
# Sanity checks
[ -d "$WWW_D" ] || mkdir -p "$WWW_D" # make the folder if it dont exist.

# End of config changes
interfaces="$(ls -1 $LIB_D)"
if [ -z "$interfaces" ]; then
    echo "No database found, nothing to do."
    echo "A new database can be created with the following command: "
    echo "    vnstat -u -i eth0"
    exit 0
    for interface in $interfaces; do
        for output in $outputs; do
            $BIN -${output} -i $interface -o $WWW_D/vnstat_${interface}_${output}.png
exit 1

chmod a+x /etc/graphs-vnstat.sh
echo "*/31 * * * * /etc/graphs-vnstat.sh" >> /etc/crontabs/root

cat > /www2/vnstat/index.html << \EOF
<META HTTP-EQUIV="refresh" CONTENT="300">
    <title>Traffic of OpenWRT interfaces</title>

for IFCE in $(ls -1 `awk -F \" '/^DatabaseDir/ { print $2 }' /etc/vnstat.conf`); do
cat >> /www2/vnstat/index.html << EOF
    <h2>Traffic of Interface $IFCE</h2>
                    <img src="vnstat_${IFCE}_s.png" alt="$IFCE Summary" />
                    <img src="vnstat_${IFCE}_h.png" alt="$IFCE Hourly" />
                <td valign="top">
                    <img src="vnstat_${IFCE}_d.png" alt="$IFCE Daily" />
                <td valign="top">
                    <img src="vnstat_${IFCE}_t.png" alt="$IFCE Top 10" />
                    <img src="vnstat_${IFCE}_m.png" alt="$IFCE Monthly" />

cat >> /www2/vnstat/index.html << \EOF

Configure the nodogsplash:
opkg install nodogsplash

cp nodogsplash.conf nodogsplash.conf-orig
sed -i "s/\(^GatewayInterface\).*/\1 br-lan/;s/^# \(GatewayName\).*/\1 Ser/;s/\(.*FirewallRule allow tcp port 80\)$/#\1/;s@^# \(GatewayIPRange\).*@\1;/FirewallRule block to\/8/a\ \ \ \ FirewallRule allow tcp port 80" /etc/nodogsplash/nodogsplash.conf

sed -i "/<td align=center height=\"120\">/a\
<h2>For Internet access - click the dog</h2>\
<h2>Pro pristup na Internet klikni na psa.</h2>\
" /etc/nodogsplash/htdocs/splash.html

/etc/init.d/nodogsplash enable

uci commit

That's all... ;-) Happy OpenWRTing...


  1. Excellent article. Just got my TL-WR1043ND router going with Openwrt latest stable. Your instructions are useful but I am not so bold to compile just yet. I am looking to expand the use of mine with external usb hard drive. I was going through some of your notes. I am not sure if I understood but it seemed you stated you could put a usb hub off the port and run several devices. Is that correct. Also I have an external USB hard drive and I am trying to get the filesystem to mount. I am still researching but any info you have on this would be helpful. Unless it doesnt have enough power to drive the external drive or I have to get an external drive that has a case which takes its own power source. Hope to hear from you as I am still in the research phase of learning about this wonderful router.


  2. @julian

    Yes you are right. Actually I used USB Hub containing 4 ports. To these ports I connected thermometer, USB stick and webcam.

    Actually I have no experiences with connecting USB hard drive to to this devices - especially how it is with it's power source. I'm using USB stick and it's working fine.



  3. Great article. If I implemented your network, dhcp, dns, firewall setup, what do you think Luci would display in the GUI. Any chance of it working?


  4. I guess almost all the commands done using "uci" will show up in the Luci WebGUI. If you will do the changes in these "sections": network, dhcp, dns, firewall - it should be in Luci for sure.

  5. I am dumbing down your configuration a bit as I am a newbie at this. I am removing the open wifi stuff for now (although a guest network is a really neat idea that I want to implement later) but can you tell me what is in your /etc/dnsmasq.script?

    And thanks for getting back to me so quickly. Have you thought of putting your config on the openwrt forum or wiki? It is really good stuff for us learners.


  6. Hi Petrův blog, you has lot of good informations in your blog, I just subscribed on RSS :)
    So, can you help me, after the step: make V=99

    Was generated those files:



    But where is: openwrt-ar71xx-tl-wr1043nd-v1-squashfs-sysupgrade.bin

    Can I use some of those file to upgrade openwrt?



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